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By David Grummitt

The Wars of the Roses (c. 1450-85) are popular as an infamously savage and tangled slice of English background. A bloody thirty-year fight among the dynastic homes of Lancaster and York, they embraced localized vendetta (such because the sour northern feud among the Percies and Nevilles) in addition to the formal conflict of royalist and insurgent armies at St Albans, Ludford Bridge, Mortimer's go, Towton, Tewkesbury and eventually Bosworth, whilst the usurping Yorkist king Richard used to be beaten by way of Henry Tudor. strong personalities dominate the interval: the charismatic and enigmatic Richard III, immortalized by means of Shakespeare; the slippery Warwick, "the kingmaker," who ultimately over-reached ambition to be scale down on the conflict of Barnet; and guileful ladies like Elizabeth Woodville and Margaret of Anjou, who for a time governed the dominion in her husband's stead. David Grummitt locations the violent occasions of this complicated time within the wider context of fifteenth-century kingship and the advance of English political tradition. by no means wasting sight of the nerve-racking influence of struggle at the lives of these who both fought in or have been touched by way of conflict, this attractive new historical past will make compelling examining for college kids of the overdue medieval interval and Tudor England, in addition to for basic readers.

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Henry personified contemporary expectations of effective kingship and the upholding of his coronation vows were the touchstone of his reign. On his accession he also set about restoring the crown’s credit worthiness. Priority was initially given at the Exchequer to the repayment of royal debts and the defence of the realm, while the crown’s regular sources of income (the profits of justice, prerogative rights and the crown lands) were exploited with efficiency. The new king also set about ostentatiously restoring law and justice.

The Lancastrian regime had survived the crisis of legitimacy created by the circumstances of 1399. This was a combination of luck, the skill of men like Arundel, and the loyalty demonstrated by the ever-expanding Lancastrian affinity. Nevertheless, there was a price to be paid. First, the cost of the royal household and the other expenses of government spiralled, placing ever greater strains on the body politic. Second, the king’s reliance on the Lancastrian affinity in the localities had led to a re-ordering of local political society in many parts of the realm and a fear that government for the public good was being overtaken by government driven by private interest.

October: rebellion of Richard’s ally, the Duke of Buckingham, with an alliance of Woodville supporters and former members of Edward IV’s household in favour of Henry Tudor amidst rumours of the demise of Edward’s sons. 25 December: at Rennes cathedral in Brittany Henry Tudor promises to marry Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York. xxxviii IBT049˚— Wars of the Roses:Layout 1 14/9/12 16:20 Page xxxix Timeline 1485 1486 1487 7 August: Henry Tudor lands at Milford Haven at the head of a small force of English exiles and French mercenaries.

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