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By J. Clapp

With the adoption of a global Bank-sponsored structural adjustment programme within the mid-1980s, Guinea underwent a dramatic swap in its monetary and agricultural rules. The country's event over the last decade illustrates one of the most urgent difficulties encountered through African nations pursuing fiscal reform. This publication analyses those problems via analyzing the adjustment event in Guinea because it affected the country's total political economic system and the rural area particularly. It additionally areas this example in the broader context of African adjustment.

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Additional resources for Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa: Farmers, the State, and the World Bank in Guinea

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82 The aim of these national agricultural projects was to develop management systems and improve staff skills, while using a minimum of technical assistance and very little infrastructural support. The size of the loans for each of these projects was thus somewhat lower than for the typical integrated rural development area project. But for countries with a series of related national projects, the total project lending for the agricultural sector could exceed the amount for an integrated rural development project.

Although the Bank and other donors increased their free-standing, 'soft' technical assistance to help governments design and put into place the new framework, there was widespread disillusionment with this soft technical assistance by the late 1980s. 65 Technical assistance by 1990 was to be designated for short-term advice-giving rather than for long-term 'hands on' assistance. In addition, longer term assignments were to be given to Africans in their own countries, in 28 Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa order to help build local consulting expertise.

This new national project strategy embodied many of the Bank's major changes in thinking and action - at the external, domestic and rural levels. The strategy often increased agricultural sector lending, given that there were usually a number of national projects Africa, Agriculture and World Bank 31 as opposed to typically one area project. It also aimed to create new strong institutions as models of good governance which were designed to address more than just prices. These new agricultural institution projects were also supposed to build domestic capacity by using local consultants and popular participation as opposed to elaborate technical assistance.

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