By S.S. Narwal, R.E. Hoagland, R.H. Dilday, M. J. Reigosa Roger
The speedily becoming human inhabitants has elevated the dependence on fossil gas established agrochemicals reminiscent of fertilizers and insecticides to provide the mandatory agricultural and forestry items. This has exerted an outstanding strain at the non renewable fossil gas assets, which can't final indefinitely. in addition to, indiscriminate use ofpesticides for pests (weeds, bugs, nematodes, pathogens) keep an eye on has led to severe ecological and environmental difficulties viz. , (A) expanding prevalence of resistance in pest organisms to special insecticides. (B) Shift in pests inhabitants, particulary in weeds and bugs. In weeds, species which are extra heavily on the topic of the plants they infest have constructed. In bugs, state of affairs is so much grim, the predators were killed and minor insect pests became significant pests and require very heavy doses ofhighly poisonous pesticides for his or her keep watch over. (C) better environmental pollutants and health and wellbeing dangers (a) really from illness of floor and underground consuming water assets and (b) from their inhalation in the course of dealing with and alertness. (D) poisonous residues of insecticides pollute the surroundings and will end up unsafe to even our destiny generations. (E) a few agricultural commodities may possibly comprise minute amounts ofpesticides residues, with lengthy tenn opposed results on human and cattle wellbeing and fitness. for this reason, severe ecological questions about the reliance on insecticides for pests regulate has been raised. using fertilizers, along with inflicting environmental difficulties has additionally impoverished the soil health and wellbeing and reduced the useful soil fauna. for instance, in a few significant crop rotations viz.
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Additional info for Allelopathy in Ecological Agriculture and Forestry: Proceedings of the III International Congress on Allelopathy in Ecological Agriculture and Forestry, Dharwad, India, 18–21 August 1998
S. (1994). Allelopathic effect of Kharif crop residues on growth of wheat, gram and lentil. 7, pp. 43. 46. R. (1989). Allelopathy and agricultural sustainability. In Phytochemical Ecology : Alleochemicals, Mycotoxins, Insect Pheromones and allmones. H. R. Walter). 9: 69-80. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Botany, Academica Sinica. 47. R. (199Oa). Agroecology: The Basic Researchfor Sustainable Agriculture. Berlin: SpingerVerlag. pp. 380. 48. R. (1990b). Understanding the basis of sustainability for agriculture in tropics: Experience in Latin America.
Azolla pinnata, a biofertilizer, suppressed the infestation of M incognita in okra (136). Species of polygonum weed have also been found effective in controlling nematodes (120). , Azadirachta indica A. , Eucalyptus, Tectona grandis L. and Pongamia glabra Vent. along roads, river banks and forests for the collection and field application of their leaves to control nematodes. Mishra and Mojumdar (82) have reported that neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel is more toxic followed by its seed and seed coat.
124. L. E. (1983). Plant growth response to several allelopathic chemicals. Weed Science 31 : 293-298. 125. E. F. (1986). ). Journal ofAgriculutral and Food Chemistry 34: 633-638. 126. A. D. (1985). ) mulch: The suppression of certain broad-leaved weeds and the isolation and identification of phytotoxins. C. Thompson), ACS Symposium Series No. 268: 243-471. : American Chemical Society. 127. D. A. (1986). Influence of mulch, tillage and diphenemid on weed control, yield and quality in no-till flue cured tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum).